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Glossary of Terms & Acronyms

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ACCI: Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry

Accredited Course : a structured sequence of vocational education and training that leads to an Australian Qualifications Framework qualification or Statement of Attainment.

ACTU : Australian Council of Trade Unions

Adult Migrant English Program (AMEP) : an education and settlement program funded by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs for new immigrants and refugees providing English language teaching, counselling and support services.

Advanced Standing : (also called status or credit recognition granted to a student on the basis of previous study (credit transfer) and / or experience (recognition of prior learning), exempting the student from a particular course, subject or module.

API : Australian Property Institute

Apprentice : a person undertaking training under an apprenticeship. See also New Apprenticeships trainee.

Apprenticeship : a system of training regulated by law or custom which combines on-the-job training and work experience while in paid employment with formal off-the-job training. The apprentice enters into a contract of training or training agreement with an employer, which imposes mutual obligations on both parties. Traditionally, apprenticeships were in trade occupations (declared vocations) and were of four years' duration. See also New Apprenticeships.

AQF : Australian Qualifications Framework. The AQF provides a comprehensive, nationally consistent yet flexible framework for all qualifications in post-compulsory education and training. Higher Education Sector Doctorate Masters Graduate Diploma Graduate Certificate Bachelor Degree Advanced Diploma Diploma

Vet Sector Advanced Diploma Diploma Certificate IV Certificate III Certificate II Certificate I School Sector Senior Secondary Certificate of Education

ASIAL : Australian Security Industry Association Limited

Assessment : the process of gathering and judging evidence in order to decide whether a person has achieved a standard or objective. See also competency-based assessment.

Assessment Guidelines : an endorsed component of a Training Package which underpins assessment and which sets out the industry approach to valid, reliable, flexible and fair assessment. Assessment guidelines include information concerning: assessment system overview, assessor requirements, designing assessment resources, conducting assessment, sources of information on assessment.

Assessment materials : optional component of Training Packages that complement endorsed industry assessment guidelines and could take the form of assessment exemplars or specific assessment tasks and instructions.

Assessor :a person qualified to carry out assessment.

Austudy : an Australian federal government scheme offering means-tested financial assistance to mature-age full-time students; commenced in 1986.

Award : Industrial relations agreement outlining conditions of work, including pay.

Award Restructuring : the changing of industrial awards, including the removal of obsolete classifications, a reduction in the number of classifications, and the redefinition of a range of jobs under single classifications, in order to improve workplace productivity and the efficiency and flexibility of workers.

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Best Practice : management practices and work processes that lead to outstanding or top-class performance and provide examples for others.

Block Release : the release of an employee from the workplace for periods of time, usually of a week or more, in order to undertake related training in an educational institution. The term applies particularly to apprentices and trainees. Compare day release.

Bridging Course : a course designed to equip students to take up a new subject or course by covering the gaps between the students' existing knowledge and skills and the subject or course prerequisites and assumed knowledge.

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Cadetship : an employment arrangement in which an employer undertakes to subsidise an employee's formal training leading to certain qualifications, and in which the employee is usually required to remain with the employer for a specified period after completion of training.

CAI : computer-aided (or computer-assisted) instruction; see computer-based training.

CAL : computer-assisted learning.

Career Counselling : (also called vocational counselling) the process of assisting and guiding people in their career choices. Casual Employee an employee who generally has no entitlement to paid holiday or sick leave and who lacks the security of ongoing employment, with each job constituting a separate contract of employment. Under some awards casual employees are entitled to either holiday leave or sick leave.

CBA :see Competency Based Assessment

CBT : see Competency Based Training

Centrelink : a statutory authority providing information and assistance relating to a range of Commonwealth Government programs, including all services formerly provided by the Department of Social Security, as well as childcare and student assistance payments and services, registration of all new applicants for income support and employment assistance, self-help job search facilities, referrals for employment assistance, and specialist labour market assistance services for disadvantaged groups.

Certificates I-IV : a set of qualifications awarded in the vocational education and training sector and recognised under the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF). The four levels of certificate recognise increasing levels of skill. .

Class Contact Hours : the number of hours in any given period for which a teacher is programmed to be in contact with classes of students.

Competency : (also referred to as 'competence') the ability to perform tasks and duties to the standard expected in employment. Competency Standard : an industry-determined specification of performance which sets out the skills, knowledge and attitudes required to operate effectively in employment. Competency standards are made up of units of competency, which are themselves made up of elements of competency, together with performance criteria, a range of variables, and an evidence guide. Competency standards are an endorsed component of a training package.

Competency-Based Assessment : (or CBA) the gathering and judging of evidence in order to decide whether a person has achieved a standard of competence. Competency-Based Training : (or CBT) training which develops the skills, knowledge and attitudes required to achieve competency standards.

Contextualisation : the addition of industry or enterprise specific information to a unit of competency to improve the standards relevance to industry.

Contract of Training : (also called training agreement) a legal agreement between an employer and an apprentice or trainee, which defines the rights and responsibilities of each party. These include the employer guaranteeing to train the apprentice or trainee in the agreed occupation or training area, and to allow time off work to attend any required off-the-job training; and the apprentice or trainee agreeing to learn all aspects of the occupation or training area, and to work for the employer for a specified period. Contracts of training supersede indentures.

Core Competencies :identifies units of competency within a competency standard that an industry has agreed are essential to be achieved if a person is to be accepted as competent at a particular level. All units may be core, but in many cases competency at a level will involve core units plus optional or specialisation units of competency. Core competencies are normally those central to work in a particular industry.

Course : a structured and integrated program of education or training, usually consisting of a number of modules (subjects) or shorter programs, and leading to the award of a qualification.

Credit : (also called status or advanced standing) the acknowledgment that a person has satisfied the requirements of a module (subject) or unit of competency either through previous study(credit transfer) or through work or life experience (recognition of prior learning). The granting of credit exempts the student from that part of the course.

Curriculum : the specifications for a course or subject (module) which describe all the learning experiences a student undergoes, generally including objectives, content, intended learning outcomes, teaching methodology, recommended or prescribed assessment tasks, assessment exemplars, etc.

Customisation : tailoring to individual requirements; (in vocational education and training) the process of tailoring a program to meet the specific needs of clients. Customised qualifications are devised by Registered Training Organisations, created through combining competency standards drawn from two or more different endorsed Training Packages to create a new qualification outcome. Such qualifications must meet the requirements of the Australian Qualifications Framework, the Customisation Policy of the National Training Quality Council and the customisation advice of the relevant Training Packages.

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Day Release : the release of an employee from the workplace, usually for one day per week, in order to undertake related training in an educational institution. The term applies particularly to apprentices and trainees. Compare block release.

Declared Vocation : a trade occupation specified in legislation, regulations or an industrial award for which the entrance requirement is successful completion of an apprenticeship. With the implementation of New Apprenticeships, declared vocations have been abolished in most States and Territories.

DEST : Department of Education, Science and Training. The Commonwealth Department responsible for public and private schools and school systems, higher education institutions and research, vocational education and training, student and youth affairs, school to work transition programs, indigenous employment and education, and internationalisation of Australia's education and training systems. Formerly, the Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DETYA),and before that the Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA) and earlier the Department of Employment, Education and Training (DEET)

DET The NSW Department of Education and Training.

Workplace Relations and Small Business Diploma : a qualification in the vocational education and training and higher education sectors. See also Australian Qualifications Framework.

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Education :

  • the process of imparting knowledge or developing skills, understanding, attitudes, character or behaviours.
  • the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, understanding, attitudes, etc.
  • the knowledge, skills, understanding, attitudes, etc. acquired. 
  • the field of study concerned with teaching and learning.

EEO : equal employment opportunity.

Employee : The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines employee in the following way: An employee is a person who works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages, salary, a retainer fee by their employer while working on a commission basis, tips, piece-rates or payment in kind, or a person who operates his or her own incorporated enterprise with or without hiring employees.

Employer : The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines employer as: An employer is a person who operates his or her own unincorporated economic enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade, and hires one or more employees.

Endorsed Component : the central part of a training package, endorsed by the National Training Framework Committee, comprising competency standards, assessment guidelines and qualifications. Compare non-endorsed component.

Enterprise Agreement : a collective agreement between the employer and employees in an enterprise or workplace, about the employees' wages and conditions of employment. Agreements can be negotiated directly with employees or with their representatives, eg unions.

Enterprise Bargaining : a process of negotiation on wages and conditions between the employer and employees (or their representatives) in an enterprise or workplace, leading to an agreement for that enterprise or workplace.

Entry Requirements : the qualifications, knowledge, skills or experience required for entry to an education or training program.

Entry-Level Skill : a skill required to commence employment in an organisation or more generally, to gain entry into the workforce.

Entry-Level Training : (or ELT) training undertaken to gain entry into the workforce or further vocational education and training.

Equity : fairness, social justice. In vocational education and training, equity policy incorporates measures to improve access to, participation in, and outcomes of vocational education and training for those who may be disadvantaged or have traditionally been under-represented, especially indigenous Australians, people with a disability, women, people in remote and rural communities, and people from a non-English-speaking background.

ESL : English as a second language.

Evidence Guide : the part of a competency standard which provides a guide to the interpretation and assessment of the unit of competency, including the aspects which need to be emphasised in assessment, relationships to other units, and the required evidence of competency.

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Fee-For-Service Training :training for which most or all of the cost is borne by the student or a person or organisation on behalf of the student.

Flexible Delivery : a range of approaches to providing education and training, giving learners greater choice of when, where and how they learn. Flexible delivery may involve distance education, mixed-mode delivery, online education, self-paced learning, self- directed learning, etc.

Flexible Learning : the provision of a range of learning modes or methods, giving learners greater choice of when, where and how they learn. See also flexible delivery.

Full-Time Student : a student who has a full-time study load. For AUSTUDY entitlement, the Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs regards a normal full-time study load as 720 student contact hours in a year, and any student undertaking 540 hours or more is regarded as a full- time student.

Full-Time Worker : a person working all the normal working hours. The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines full-time workers as: Employed persons who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and others who, although usually working less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Further Education (FE) : post-secondary education, including higher education, adult education, and vocational education and training. general adult education programs for adults undertaken for personal enrichment, personal development, general interest or recreation.

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Group Training Company : a company which employs apprentices and trainees, and places them with one or more host employers who are usually small to medium-sized businesses. The host employers provide on-the-job training and experience, while the group training company organises off-the-job training, and handles recruitment, rotation and payroll.

GTA : Group Training Australia . The national professional association for group training companies.

 

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HECS : see Higher Education Contribution Scheme

Higher Education : post-secondary education offered by a university or other recognised higher education institution, or through Open Learning Australia, leading to the award of a degree or higher level qualification.

Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS) : a funding arrangement whereby students pay part of the cost of their higher education, and the Commonwealth government pays the rest. It can be paid up-front or as a levy on income when the graduate¡¯s income reaches a specified level.

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Indenture : (historically) the legal agreement between an apprentice and an employer under which the apprentice was bound to the employer for a specified period in return for the training received; superseded by contract of training or training agreement.

Industrial Award : see Award.

Industry Restructuring : a process of changing the forms of work organisation within enterprises and across industry in order to improve productivity, competitiveness, quality and flexibility. This may involve job redesign, award restructuring, new technology, and ongoing training or retraining of workers.

Institute of TAFE : a regional grouping of TAFE college campuses with common management and administration and sharing some functions and resources.

Integrated Assessment : an approach to assessment that covers multiple elements and/or units of competence from relevant competency standards. The integrated approach attempts to combine knowledge, understanding, problem solving, technical skills, attitudes and ethics into an assessment task with the aim of reducing the time spent on testing as well as making assessment more ¡®authentic¡¯.

ITAB : Industry Training Advisory Body. Also called industry training advisory board. An organisation, usually an incorporated association or company, recognised as representing a particular industry and providing advice to government on the vocational education and training needs of that industry. There were both national and State / Territory industry training advisory bodies, but the national bodies have been reconstituted as Skills Councils, and the term ITAB now refers to the State / Territory bodies only.

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Job Guide : a guide produced by the Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, giving information on jobs, education and training pathways. The Job Guide is available as a book, on disk and on the internet at www.jobguide.dest.gov.au

Job Network : a network of private, community and government organisations assisting people to find jobs.

Jobs Pathway Program (JPP) : a government program designed to assist students in the transition from school to work by developing links between schools, industry and the local community, and through support, guidance, education and training.

Jobseeker : a person looking for and available for work.

JPP :see Jobs Pathway Program.

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Key Competency : any of several generic skills or competencies considered essential for people to participate effectively in the workforce. Key competencies apply to work generally, rather than being specific to work in a particular occupation or industry. 

 

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Labour Market Program : a program designed to increase the number of people in employment or to improve the employment prospects of a target group, eg by the payment of subsidies to businesses that take on long-term unemployed people, young people, etc.

LAFHA : living away from home allowance. LAFHA may be accessed by apprentices who are forced to leave their home to find work. Consult Centrelink for more details.

Learning Pathway : a path or sequence of learning or experience that can be followed to attain competency. Learning pathways may be included as part of the non-endorsed component of a training package.

LHMU : Liquor, Hospitality and Miscellaneous Union

Lifelong Learning : the process of acquiring knowledge or skills throughout life via education, training, work and general life experiences.

LLN : language, literacy and numeracy.

Logbook : a record kept by a person of the knowledge, skills or competencies attained during on-or off-the-job training.

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Mixed-Mode Delivery : (also called mixed delivery) a combination of learning modes to deliver a course or module, such as distance education and face-to-face study in classes, tutorials, practical sessions or workshops.

Modular Course : a course composed of modules.

Module (also called subject) : a unit of education or training which can be completed on its own or as part of a course. Modules may also result in the attainment of one or more units of competency.

Multi-Skilling : training workers in a number of skills, enabling them to perform a variety of tasks or functions across traditional boundaries. Multi-skilling may be horizontal (broad skilling),vertical (upskilling) or diagonal (contributory skilling).

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NAAP : New Apprenticeships Access Program

National Training Framework : the system of vocational education and training that applies nationally. It is made up of the Australian Quality Training Framework and nationally endorsed Training Packages.

National Training Information Service (NTIS) : an online database (at http://www.ntis.gov.au/)developed by the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA), providing information on vocational education and training in Australia, including details of training packages, competency standards, assessment guidelines, courses, qualifications, and registered training organisations.

NCVER : the National Centre for Vocational Education Research is Australia 's principal provider of vocational education and training (VET) search and statistics.

New Apprenticeships : an umbrella term for the national apprenticeship and traineeship arrangements which came into effect on 1 January 1998.The main characteristics of New Apprenticeships include a contract of training between employer and apprentice or trainee, public funding and support for employers, choice of training provider, a wider range of occupations and industries than previously, competency- based training using national training packages, pprenticeships in schools, and a continued role for group training companies.

Nominal Hours : (supervised) the hours of supervised learning or training deemed necessary to cover the educational material in a training program when undertaken in standard classroom delivery mode. Nominal hours (unsupervised) the hours of unsupervised learning or training deemed necessary to cover the educational material associated with the delivery of a training program. These hours include the time spent in work experience, industry placement or field placement. non-compliance in relation to RTOs means failure to comply with one or more of the Australian Recognition Framework Standards for Registered Training Organisations.

Non-Endorsed Component : the parts of a training package not required to be endorsed by the National Training Framework Committee, including support materials for learning, training, assessment, and professional development.

NTIS : See National Training Information Service

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Off-the-Job Training : training which takes place away from a person's job, usually off the premises, eg at TAFE, but may be on the premises, eg in a special training area.

On-Site Training : training conducted at the work site (eg in a training room)but not on the job.

On-the-Job Training : training undertaken in the workplace as part of the productive work of the learner.

Online Education : (also online learning and online training learning or training conducted via a computer network, eg using the internet and the World Wide Web, a local area network (LAN),or an intranet. See also flexible delivery.

Open Learning : an approach to learning which gives students flexibility and choice over what, when, at what pace, where, and how they learn, commonly using distance education and the facilities of educational technology. See also flexible delivery.

Outcomes-Based Education : an educational system focussed and organised around clearly defined outcomes which students are expected to demonstrate upon completion. outsourcing the practice of having goods or services provided by a person or persons outside the business or organisation

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Pathway : a path or sequence of learning or experience that can be followed to attain competency.

Performance Criteria : the part of a competency standard specifying the required level of performance in terms of a set of outcomes which need to be achieved in order to be deemed competent.

Portable Skill : a skill or competency that can be transferred from one work context to another.

Post-Compulsory Education : education beyond the compulsory age prescribed by statute in each State or Territory, including the senior years of secondary schooling, and all higher, further, or other post-secondary education.

Post-Secondary Education : all education beyond secondary school level, including that delivered by universities, colleges, community providers, etc.

Post-Trade Course : a course which provides further or more advanced training for qualified tradespersons. PRA see primary recognition authority.

Pre-Apprenticeship Course : (also pre-traineeship course) a course which provides initial training in a particular industry or occupation. Successful completion of the course can assist participants in obtaining an apprenticeship or traineeship, and may enable the term of the apprentice's training agreement to be reduced.

Pre-Employment Training Course : a course which provides initial training in a particular industry or occupation. Successful completion of the course can assist participants in obtaining an apprenticeship or traineeship, and may enable the term of the apprentice's training agreement to be reduced.

Pre-Vocational Course : a course designed to prepare people for vocational education and training or work, including bridging courses, basic literacy and numeracy training, or training in job skills.

Prerequisite : (in vocational education and training) a requirement for admission to a particular course or module, eg satisfactory completion of a specific subject or course, at least five years in the workforce.

Prior Learning : skills and knowledge acquired from previous study, work or life experiences. See also recognition of prior learning (RPL).

Private Provider : a non-government training organisation, including commercial providers (providing courses to industry and individuals for profit),community providers (non-profit organisations, funded by government or community sponsors),enterprise providers (companies or other organisations providing training mainly for their own employees),and industry providers (organisations providing training to enterprises across an industry). professional continuing education (also called professional development education of adults in professional fields, updating and improving occupational skills, often involving short-term, intensive, specialised courses.

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Qualification : The combined packaging of a group of competencies or modules.

Qualification Certification : awarded to a person on successful completion of a course in recognition of having achieved particular knowledge, skills or competencies. See also Australian Qualifications Framework.

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Range of Variables : (also called range statement) the part of a competency standard which specifies the range of contexts and conditions to which the performance criteria apply.

RCC : see Recognition of Current Competencies.

Recognition : the formal approval of training organisations, products and services operating within the vocational education and training (VET) sector (as defined by State and Territory legislation).

Recognition of Current Competencies : (RCC) the acknowledgment of competencies currently held by a person, acquired through training, work or life experience. More commonly known as recognition of prior learning.

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) : the acknowledgment of a person's skills and knowledge acquired through previous training, work or life experience, which may be used to grant status or credit in a subject or module.

Registered Training Organisation (RTO) : an organisation registered by a State or Territory recognition authority to deliver training and/or conduct assessments and issue nationally recognised qualifications in accordance with the Australian Quality Training Framework. They include TAFE colleges and institutes, adult and community education providers, private providers, community organisations, schools, higher education institutions, commercial and enterprise training providers, industry bodies and other organisations meeting the registration requirements.

REIA : Real Estate Institute of Australia

Retraining training to facilitate entry to a new occupation.

Risk Management the systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to the tasks of identifying, analysing, evaluating, treating and monitoring risk.

RoSA : Record of School Achievement. The RoSA was introduced in 2011 and replaces the School Certificate. It is awarded to students who leave school before completing their Higher School Certificate (HSC). The RoSA records grades ranging from A to E for completed courses in Years 10 and 11. Students have the option of taking literacy and numeracy tests. The marks for these would also be shown of the RoSA.

RTO : See Registered Training Organisation

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School to Work Program : a government program aimed at developing partnerships between schools and industry, business and the vocational education and training sector in order to establish accredited vocational education and training. School to Work Transition : the process of transferring from school to the workforce or further study. scope of registration the range of operations for which a training organisation is registered, including whether it may deliver training as well as assessment, the fields or industries in which it may deliver training or assessment, and the maximum level of qualifications it may issue.

School-Industry Program : a program for Year 11 and 12 students which combines school learning with workplace learning. Many programs lead to advanced standing in an apprenticeship or traineeship or credit towards a vocational education and training course.

Self-Assessment : a process in which learners or organisations assess their own performance against particular standards or criteria;(in competency-based training) a process in which learners assess their own performance against competency standards;(in quality endorsement)a process in which an organisation assesses the extent to which it satisfies the criteria for quality endorsement, identifying opportunities for improvement.

Self-Paced Learning : learning undertaken at a student's own pace.

Short Course. a course of vocational education and training which stands alone and does not usually lead to a full qualification. A statement of attainment may be issued on successful completion.

STA : See State Training Authority

Standard : a level or measure of achievement; a statement of performance or outcome criteria. See also competency standard.

State Training Authority (STA) : also called State/Territory Training Authority - the body in each State or Territory responsible for the operation of the vocational education and training system within that jurisdiction. Each State or Territory training authority participates in the formulation of national policy, planning and objectives, and promotes and implements the agreed policies and priorities within the State or Territory.

Statement of Attainment : certification issued to a student for partial completion of a qualification, including, where relevant, the units of competency achieved under nationally endorsed standards. Achievements recognised by statements of attainment can accumulate towards a qualification within the Australian

Structured Workplace Learning : (also called workplace learning and work placement) the on-the-job component of a VET in Schools program. The skills or 'learning outcomes' commonly reflect nationally recognised, industry-defined competency standards. The student is not paid by the employer.

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TAFE : a publicly funded post-secondary organisation which provides a range of technical and vocational education and training courses and other programs, eg entry and bridging courses, language and literacy courses, adult basic education courses, Senior Secondary Certificate of Education courses, personal enrichment courses, and small business courses. Each State and Territory has its own TAFE system.

Tertiary Education : formal education beyond secondary education, including higher education, vocational education and training, or other specialist post-secondary education or training; sometimes used to refer only to higher education. Also called post-secondary education or further education.

Tertiary Entrance Rank : (or TER) a ranking of students (usually based on results in the Senior Secondary Certificate of Education) used by universities and some providers of vocational education and training courses when selecting the students who will be offered places in particular courses.

Trade Course : a course offered by a vocational education and training provider which covers the off- the-job requirements of an apprenticeship and supplements the on-the-job training, now being replaced by training package qualifications. See also apprenticeship.

Trainee : a person receiving training or undertaking a traineeship. See also New Apprenticeships apprentice.

Traineeship : a system of vocational training combining off-the-job training at an approved training provider with on-the-job training and practical work experience. Traineeships generally take one to two years and are now a part of the New Apprenticeships system.

Training : the development of skills, knowledge, attitudes, competencies, etc. through instruction or practice.

Training Organisation : an organisation which provides vocational education, training and/or assessment services. See also Registered Training Organisation.

Training Package : an integrated set of nationally endorsed standards, guidelines and qualifications for training, assessing and recognising people's skills, developed by industry to meet the training needs of an industry or group of industries. Training packages consist of core endorsed components of competency standards, assessment guidelines and qualifications, and optional non-endorsed components of support materials such as learning strategies, assessment resources and professional development materials.

Training Plan : a program of training and assessment which forms part of a New Apprenticeship Training Contract and is registered with the relevant State or Territory Training Authority.

Training Program : a set of education and training activities designed to achieve a specific vocational outcome, eg a course, module (subject), on-the-job training, etc.

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Unit of Competency : a component of a competency standard. A unit of competency is a statement of a key function or role in a particular job or occupation. See also element of competency, performance criteria, range of variables.

User Choice : a provision of New Apprenticeships whereby an employer and an apprentice or trainee can choose the training provider for the government-funded off-the-job elements of the training program. The organisation chosen can be a TAFE college or any other registered training organisation (including a school)that has been registered to deliver the required training.

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VET : See Vocational Education and Training

VET in Schools : allows school students to combine vocational studies with their general education curriculum. Students participating in VET in Schools continue to work towards their secondary school certificate. The VET component of their studies gives them credit towards a nationally recognised VET qualification. In this way, participants can keep their options open to pursue further full-time or part-time vocational training or to move into tertiary studies after school.

Vocational Education and Training (VET) : post-compulsory education and training, excluding degree and higher level programs delivered by higher education institutions, which provides people with occupational or work-related knowledge and skills. VET also includes programs which provide the basis for subsequent vocational programs. Alternative terms used internationally include technical and vocational education and training (TVET),vocational and technical education and training (VTET),technical and vocational education

(TVE),vocational and technical education (VTE),and further education and training (FET).

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Work Experience : a period (usually one or two weeks) of unpaid work undertaken by secondary school students as part of their careers education, to provide some insight into the world of work. Compare work placement.

Work Placement : (also called field placement, vocational placement, structured work placement) a period of unpaid work with an employer undertaken by VET students in order to satisfy the requirements of a course or module, with supervision provided by the employer, the training provider or both.

Work-Based Learning : programs for both secondary and post- secondary students which provide opportunities to achieve employment- related competencies in the workplace. Work-based learning is often undertaken in conjunction with classroom or related learning, and may take the form of work placements, work experience, workplace mentoring, instruction in general workplace competencies, and broad instruction in all aspects of industry.

Work-Based Training : training provided by an organisation primarily for its own employees using the employer's own staff or consultants. Work- based training can be conducted either on- site or at an off-site location.

Workplace Assessment : the gathering and judging of evidence during normal work activities in order to determine whether a required standard has been achieved. Workplace assessment usually involves observation of work in progress, checking the product(s)of a work activity, and receiving oral responses to questions posed while work is in progress.

Workplace Learning (also workplace training) learning or training undertaken in the workplace, usually on the job, including on-the-job training under normal operational conditions, and on-site training, which is conducted away from the work process (eg in a training room).

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